Nnrtli Olarnltna Wtutt

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CYCLOPEDIA OF AMERICAN HORTICULTURE

jTt^^^

Cyclopedia of American Horticulture

COMPRISING SUGGESTIONS FOR CULTIVATION OF HORTI- CULTURAL PLANTS, DESCRIPTIONS OF THE SPECIES OF FRUITS, VEGETABLES, FLOWERS AND ORNAMENTAL PLANTS SOLD IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA, TOGETHER WITH GEOGRAPHICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES

L. H. BAILEY

fessor of Horticulture in Cornell Univer

WILHELM MILLER, Ph.D.

Associate Editor

AND MANY EXPERT CULTIVATORS AND BOTANISTS

3IIUt9tratrti biitl)

Utoo i:^ou3anb (Eisftt !f?untitcli

iSDrtginal d^nstabmss

In Four Volumes Vol. I-A-D

FIFTH EDITIOH

jI3cto j^orfe THE MACMTLLAX COMPANY

LONDON: MACMILLAN & CO., Ltd. 1006

The riuhts nl rrprntliii-Kfii and nf Iranslalion are strictly resereed

COPTRIGHT, 1900 THE MACMILl.AX COMPANY

Set np and eI<*Ptrotyppd. .I:i liniilca July, la03. .Mai. llHil

Anunt Jlpaaaiif ^rcs^

^ -# PREFACE

T IS THE PURPOSE OF THIS WORK to make a complete r(^cor(I of the status of North Aniei'it'aii horticulture as it exists at the close of the nineteenth century. The work dis- cusses the cultivation of fruits, ilowers and garden vegetables, describes all the species which are known to be in the hor- ticultural trade, outlines the horticultural possibilities of the various states, territories and provinces, pi'esents biographies of those persons not living who have contributed most to the horticultural progress of North America, and indicates the leading mono- graphic works relating to the various subjects.

It has been the dream of years to close the century with a comprehensive index to American horticulture, and for a long period the Editor, therefore, has collected notes, books, plants and information for the furtherance of the work. Before the active preparation of the manuscript was begun, a year was expended in making indexes and references to plants and litera- ture. Every prominent plant and seed catalogue published in the United States and Canad^ has been indexed, and the horticultui-al periodicals have been explored. A dozen artists have been employed in various horticul- tural centers to draw plants as they grow. Expert cultivators and botanists have contrilnited on their various specialties. All the important articles are signed, thus giving each author full credit for his work, and holding him responsible for it.

The work is made first-hand, from original sources of information. So far as possible, the botanical matter has been newly elaborated from the plants themselves ; and in all cases it is specially prepared directly for this Cyclopedia, and is not the work of copyists nor of space-writers. In many of the most important suljjects, two authors have contributed, one writing the culture and the other the l)otany ; and in some cases the culture is presented from two points of view. When it has been necessary to compile in comparatively unfamiliar groups, the greatest pains has been taken to select authentic sources of information ; and the proofs always have been submitted to recognized specialists. In fact,

(V)

vi PREFACE

proofs of every article in the work liave been read by experts in that subject.

Every effort has been made to present a truthful picture of American horticulture, by describing those plants which are or lately have been in the trade, and by giving cultural directions founded upon American experience. Therefore the Old Woi-ld cyclopedias, which represent other horticultural floras and other methods of cultivation, have not been fol- hjwcd. Species which are commonly cultivated in the Old World, or whi(!h are mentioned prominently in horticultural literature, but which are not known to be in North American connnerce, are briefly recoi'ded in smaller type in supplementary lists. Tlx' ()l)ject has been to make the work essentially American and wholly alive.

Particular attention has been given to the tropical and sub-ti'opical plants which are now being introduced in southern Florida and southern California. These plants already represent the larger part of the cultivated tropical flora ; and a knowledge of them will be of increasing interest and importance with tlie enlargement of our national si)here. The work is intended to cover the entire field fi-om Key West and the Rio Grande to Quebec and Alaska.

North America is a land of outdoor horticulture, and the hardy fruits, trees, shrubs and herbs are given the prominence which they deserve. In most works of this character, the glasshouse and fanciei-s' plants receive most emphatic attention.

Since it is hoped that the work will be of permanent value, descriptions of varieties are not included ; for such descriptions would increase the bulk of the work enormously, and the information would be out of date with the lapse of a few months or years. If the work finds sufficient patronage, it is hoped that a small supplemental volume may be issued annually, to I'ecord the new species and varieties and the general progress of horticul- tural business and science.

The illustrations have been made under the personal supervision of the Editor so far as possible, and, with few exceptions, they are owned and controlled by the publishers. No trade cuts have been pui'chased. In various confused gi'oups, copies have been made of old prints for the pur- pose of showing the original or native form of a plant, and thereby to illustrate the course of its evolution ; but credit is given to the source of the illustration.

The point of view is the garden, not the herbarium. The herbarium

is the adjunct. In other words, the stress is laid upon the plants as domesticated and cultivated subjects. Special efforts have been made to portray the range of variation under domestication, and to suggest the course of the evolution of the greatly modified forms. Garden plants are worthy subjects of botanical study, notwithstanding the fact that they have been neglected by systematists. It is desired to represent the plants as living, growing, varying things, rather than as mere species or bibliographical formulas.

The Editor desires to say that he considers this book but a beginning. It is the first complete survey of our horticultural activities, and it is published not because it is intended to be complete, but that it may bring together the scattered data in order that further and better studies may be made. A first work is necessarily crude. We must ever improve. To the various ai'ticles in the work, the teacher of horticulture may assign his advanced students. The Editor hopes that every entry in this book will be worked over and improved within the next quarter century.

Horticultural Department, ^' ^- -oAiLiiii 1 .

College of Agriculture of Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, December SO, 1S99.

NOTE TO THE SECOND EDITION

In the second edition sevei'al changes have been made for the purpose of reducing typographical errors and inconsistencies, a class of shortcomings which is to be found chiefly in the first volume. Perhaps a half-dozen changes have been made in statements of fact in the first volume. There has been no attempt at a revision, since it is the purpose of the Editor, as explained in the preface to Vol. IV of the original issue, to let the work stand as an expression of American horticulture at the time it was made. This expression is very imperfect, as the Editor is well aware, but it can- not be greatly improved by mere changes in the plates. Therefore, Crataegus and other subjects which recently have been much studied are left as they were understood by their authors in 1900.

In typographical matters the Editor desired to use such forms as he thought would help the reader in consulting the articles, without making

viii PREFACE

any strenuous effort at mere uniformity or so-called consistency in the vari- ous entires. For example, the entry-word or caption is usually capitalized in its own article, as Cabbage in the article Cabbage, Strawberry in the article Strawberry. This enables the reader readily to catch the word and therefore the leading thought wherever it occurs. In other articles in whicli the same word occurs, but when it is a minor note, it is not capitalized. In some instances of general - language terms which are used repeatedly, this rule is not followed (except, perhaps, at the beginning of the article), as it would be of no distinct service to the reader. The article Bulbs is an example. In general, generic names of plants, when used in a semi- technical or botanical sense, have been capitalized; when used in a general- language or incidental way they have not been capitalized. In all cases, mere rules have been considered to be of very secondary importance, and they have been broken whenever the interest of the reader seemed to demand it.

The Editor cannot hoj^e that all the errors and shoi-tcomings have been eliminated in this second edition. He will be glad to have readei-s advise him of needed corrections.

L. H. BAILEY.

August 12, 7903.

COLLABORATORS

PARTIAL LIST OF COSTRIBUTORS TO THE CYCLOPEDIA

risk designates the contribittors

iroofs and

Adams, Geo. E., Asst. Horticulturist, R. I. Exp. Sta., Kingston, B. I. {Rhode Island.) *Ames, Oakes, Asst. Dir. Botanic Garden, and Instructor in Botany in Harvard Univ., Cam- bridge, Mass. {Many genera of Orchids.) *Arnold, Jr., Geo., Florist, Rochester, N. Y. {China Asters.)

Arthur, Prof. J. C, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. {Physiology of Plants.)

Atkinson, Geo. F., Prof, of Botany, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. {Mushrooms.)

Balmer, Prof. J. A., Horticulturist, Wash. Exp. Sta., Pullman, Wash. {Washington.) *Barclav, F. W., Gardener, Haverford, Pa. {Na- tive Asters. Various liardy jtlatits.)

Barnes, Charles R., Prof, of Plant Physiology, Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, Ills. {Fertiliza- tion. Flower.)

Batersdorfer, H., Dealer in florists' supplies, Philadelphia, Pa. {Everlasting flowers.) *Beach, Prof. S. A., Horticulturist, N. Y. Exp.

Sta., Geneva, N. Y. {Corn. Thinning.) *Beadle, C. D., Botanist and horticulturist, Bilt- more, N. C. {Bamboos.)

Beal, Prof. W. J., Mich. Agric. College, Agri- cultural College, Mich. {Article "Grasses.") *Beckert, Theo. F., Florist, Allegheny City, Pa. {Botigainvillea.)

BERCK.MANS, P. J., Pomologist and nurseryman, Augusta, 6a. {Kaki. Has read proof of van- ous groujjs of importance in the South.)

Blair, Prof. J. C, Horticulturist, HI. Exp. Sta., Champaign, Ills. {Glass. Illinois.) *Bruckner, Nichol N., Dreer's nursery, Biver- tou, N. J. {The article "Ferns." Many groups of tender ferns. )

BUFFUM, Prof. B. C, Horticulturist, Wyo. Exp. Sta., Laramie, Wyo. ( Wyoming.)

Burnette, Prof. F. H., Horticulturist, La. Exp. Sta., Baton Rouge, La. {Louisiana.)

BnsH AND Sons and Meissner, Bushberg, Mo. {Grape Culture in the Prairie States.) *BuTZ, Prof. Geo. C, Asst. Horticulturist, Pa. Exp. Sta., State College, Pa. {Carnation. Pennsylvania. )

*Cameron, Robert, Gardener, Botanic Garden of Harvard Univ. i Various articles and much help on rare plants. Alpinia. Campanula, etc.)

•Canning, Edward J., Gardener, Smith College, Botanic Gardens, Northampton, Mass. {Many articles and much help on rare plants. Anihu- rium, Gloxinia, etc.)

*Card, Prof. Fred. W., Horticulturist, R. I. Exp. Sta., Kingston, R. I. {Nebraska. Botany and culture of many bush fruits. Amelanchier. Ber- beris. Blackberry . Buffalo Berry. Currant.) Clinkaberrt, Henry T., Gardener, Trenton, N. J. {Certain orchids, as Lcelia, Lycastc.)

*CoOK, O. F., Div. of Botany, Section of Seed and Plant Introduction, Dept. of Agric, Washing- ton, D. C. {Coffee.) CoRBETT, Prof. L. C, Horticulturist, W. Va. Exp. Sta., Morgantown, W. Va. ( West Virginia.)

*CoDLTER, John M., Professor and Head of the Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

*Craig, Prof. John, Horticulturist, la. Exp. Sta., Ames, la. {Canada. Gooseberry.)

*Craig, Robert, Florist, Philadelphia, Pa. (Arau- caria. Ardisia. Codiwum.) Craig, W. N., Taunton, Mass.

*Crandall, Prof. C. S., Horticulturist, Colo. Exp. Sta., Fort Collins, Colo. (Colorado.) CusHMAN, E. H., Gladiolus specialist, Euclid, Ohio. {Gladiolus.)

*Davis, K. C, Science teacher, Ithaca, X. Y. {Ranunculacece.)

*Davy, J. Burtt, Assistant Botanist, Univ. of Calif. Agric. Exp. Sta., Berkeley, Calif. {Acacia. Eucalyptus. Myrtacece.)

*DoRNER, Fred., Carnation specialist, Lafayette, Ind. {Carnation.) DoRSETT, P. H., Associate Physiologist and Patholo- gist Dept. of Agric, Washington, D. C.( Violet.) DuGGAR, B. M., formerly Asst. Cryptogamie Bota- nist, Cornell Exp. Sta., Ithaca, N. Y. {Pollen.)

*Earle, Prof. F. S., Horticulturist, Ala. Poly- technic Institute, Auburn, Ala. {Alabama.) Earle, Parker, Horticulturist, Koswell, N. M. {Xew Mexico.)

COLLABORATORS

*ElSELE, J. D., Foreman Dreei-'s Nursery, River- ton, N. .T. [CordyUne..]

*Elliott, William H., Florist, Brighton, Mass. {Asparagus plumosus. ) Emery, S. M., Director Mont. Exp. St a., Boze- mau, Mont. {Montana.)

*Endicott, W. E., Teacher, Canton, Mass. (Aehim- enes. Acidantliera.)

*Evans, Walter H., Office of Exp. Stations, Dept. of Agric, Washington, D. C. (Alaska.)

*Fawcett, Wm., Dir. Dept. Public Gardens and Plantations, Kingston, Jamaica. (Trnpiml fruits, as Cherimnya, Mangosteen, etc. )

*Fernow, Prof. B. E., Dir. College of Forestry, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. (Conifers. For- estry.)

*FiNLAYSON, Kenneth, Gardener, Brookline, Mass. (Diosma. )

*Fletcher, S. W. , Horticulturist, Ithaca, N. Y. (Convolvulacew. Helianthus. Papavcr.)

*Franceschi, Dr. F., Manager S. Calif. Acclima- tizing Ass'n, Santa Barbara, Calif. (Bare plants of S. Calif., as Dasylirimi, etc.) ■Garfield, C W., Horticulturist, Grand Kapids, Mich . ( Michigan . )

*Gerard, J. N., Elizabeth, N. J. {Many articles, especially on bulbous plant.':, as Crocus, Iris, Narcissus. ) Gillett, Edward, Nurseryman, Southwick, Mass.

(Hardy Ferns.) OOFP, Prof. E. S., Horticulturist, Wis. Exp. Sta., Madison, Wis. ( fTisconsin .)

*GouLD, H. P., Asst. Entomologist and Horti- culturist, Maryland Exp. Sta., College Park, Md. (Brussels Sprouts. Celeriac. ) Green, Prof. S. B., Horticulturist, Minnesota Exp. Sta., St. Anthony Park, Minn. (Miuiie- sota.) Green, Wm. J., Horticulturist, Ohio Exp. Sta., Wooster, Ohio. (Ohio. Sub -irrigation.)

*Greiner, T., Specialist in vegetables, La Salle, K . Y. ( Garden vegetables, as Artichoke, As- paragus, Bean, Cress.)

*Grey, Robert M., Gardener, North Easton, Mass. (Cypripedium and other orchids.) Groef, H. H., Simcoe, Ont. (Gladiolus.)

"^Gurney, James, Gardener, Mo. Botanical Garden,

St. Louis, Mo. \Cacti.) *Hale, J. H., Nurseryman and pomologist, South Glastonbury, Conn. (Connecticut.)

^Halsted, Prof. B. D., Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N. J. (Diseases. Fungi.) Hansen, Geo., Landscape architect and botanist,

Berkeley, Calif. (Epidendrum.) Hansen, Prof. N. E., Horticulturist, S. Dak. Exp. Sta., Brookings, S. Dak. (South Dakota.)

Hasselbring, H., Instructor in Botany, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. (Iris and certain orchids, as Gongora, Odontoglossum.) *Hastings, G. T., Asst. in Botany, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. (Some tropical plants, as Benia, Bertholletia.)

Hatfield, T. D., Gardener, Wellesley, Mass. ( Gesnera and various articles. )

Hedrick, U. p., Asst. Prof, of Horticulture, Agricultural College, Mich. (Evaporated Fruits )

*Henderson & Co., Peter, Seedsmen, 37 Cort- landt St., New Y'ork, N. Y. (Biclbs. ]

*Herrington, a.. Gardener, Florham Farms, Madison, N. J. (Chrysanthemum coccineum.)

Hexamer, Dr. F. M., Editor American Agricul- turist, New York, N. Y. (A. S. Fuller. ) Hicks, G. H., late of Dept. of Agric, Washing- ton, D. C. {Seed Testing.)

*Hill, E. G., Florist, Richmond, Ind. (Begonia.) HoopES, Josiah, Nurseryman, West Chester, Pa. (Hedges.)

*Horsford, Fred. H., Nurseryman, Charlotte, Vt. (Alpine Gardens. Mas read proof of many ar- ticles on native J>lants.) HuNN, Charles E., Gardener, Cornell Exp. Sta.,

Ithaca, N. Y. (Forcing of vegetables.) Huntley, Prof. F. A., Idaho Exp. Sta., Moscow,

Idaho. (Idaho.) HUTCHINS, Rev. W. T., Sweet Pea specialist, In- dian Orchard, Mass. (Sweet Pea.)

*Irish, H. C, Horticulturist, Mo. Botanical Gar- den, St. Louis, Mo. (Capsicum.)

*Jackson & Perkins Co., Nurserymen, Newark, N. Y. (Clematis.) Jordan, A. T., Asst. Horticulturist, New Bruns- wick, N. J. (New Jersey.)

*Kains, M. G.,'Div. of Botany, Dept. of Agric, Washington, D. C. (Minor vegetables. Pot Herbs. Importations.)

*Keller, J. B., Florist, Rochester, N. Y. {Many groups of hardy lierbaceous perennials.) Kelsey, Harlan P., Landscape architect, Boston, Mass. (North Carolina plants, as Galax and Leucolhoi;.)

*Kennedy, p. Beveridge, Div. of Agrostology, Dept. of Agric, Washington, D. C. (Many genera of grasses. Begonia.) Kerr, J. W., Nurseryman, Denton, Md. (Mary- land.)

*KiFT, Robert, Florist, Philadelphia, Pa. ( Cut- Jlowers. ) King, F. H., Prof, of Agricultural Physics, Madi- son, Wis. (Irrigation.)

*Kinney, L. F., Horticulturist, Kingston, R. i. (Celei-y.)

*Lager & Htjrrell, Orchid cultivators. Summit, N.J. (Cattleya.)

COLLABORATORS

i:iAKE, Prof. E. R., Horticultuiist, Ore. E.xp. Sta.,

Corvallis, Ore. (Oregon.) La'JMAN, G. N., Instructor in Horticulture, Cor- nell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. (Geranium. Pelar- gonium.) ^Lonsdale, Edwin, Florist, Chestnut Hill, Phila- delphia, Pa. {Conserraton/.) Lord & Burnham Co., Horticultural architects and builders. Irvington-on-Hudson, N. Y. ( Crreenlioiise Constriielion.) ■^LoTHROP & HiGGiNs, Dahlia specialists. East

Bridgewater, Mass. ^Manning, J. Woodward, Nurseryman, Reading, Mass. {Pyretlirum. Has read proof of many groups of herbaceous perennials.) Manning, Warren H., Landscape architect, Boston, Mass. [Article, "Herbaceous Peren- nial.^') Massey, Prof. W. F., Horticulturist, N. C. Exp.

Sta., Raleigh, N. C. [Figs. North Carolina.) Mathews, Prof. C. W., Horticulturist, Ky. Exp. Sta., Lexington, Ky. {Eentucki/.) *Mathews, F. Schl'yler, Artist, 2 Morley St., Boston, Mass. (Color.) Matnard, Prof. S. T., Horticulturist, Mass. Hatch Exp. Sta., Amherst, Mass. (Massa- chusetts. ) McDowell, Prof. R. H., Reno, Nev. (Xevada.) *McFarland, J. Horace, Horticultural printer and expert in photography, Harrisburg, Pa. (Border.) *Mc William, Geo., Gardener, Wliitinsville, Mass.

(Dipladenia.) *Mead, T. L., Horticulturist, Oviedo, Fla. (Cri- nu n. Has helped in matters of extreme southern horticulture. ) Morris, O. M., Asst. Horticulturist, Okla. Exp.

Sta., Stillwater, Okla. (Oklahoma.) Moon, Samdel C, Nurseryman, Morrisville, Pa.

(Trees for ornament.) Mdnson, T. v., Nurseryman and grape hybridist,

Deuison, Tex. (Grape culture in the South.) MuNSON, Prof. W. M., Horticulturist, Me. Exp. Sta., Orono, Me. (Maine.) *Newell, a. J., Gardener, Wellesley, Mass. ( Cer- tain orchids. ) Norton, J. B. S., Botanical Assistant, Mo. Botan- ical Garden, St. Louis, Mo. (Euphorbia.) *Ogston, Colin, Gardener, Kimball Conserva- tories, Rochester, N. Y. (Dendrohium.) *Oliver, G. W., Gardener, U. S. Botanic Gardens, Washington, D. C. (Many articles on jmlms, aroids, succulents and rare plants, andmuchhelp on proofs. Alstrcemeria. Amaryllis.) *Orpet, Edward O., Gardener, So. Lancaster, Mass. (Many articles. Border. Cyclamen. Dian- thus, and certain orchids.)

*Peacock, Lawrence K., Dahlia specialist, Ateo,

N. J. (Dahlia.) *P0WELL, Prof. G. Harold, Horticulturist, Del. Exp. Sta., Newark, Del. (Cherry. Delaware.)

Price, Prof. R. H., Horticulturist, Tex. Exp. Sta., College Station, Tex. (^Xexas.)

*PuRDT, Carl, Specialist in California bulbs, TJkiah, Calif. (Californian native plants, as Brodioea, Calochortus, Fritillaria.)

Rane, Prof. F. W., Horticulturist, N. H. Exp. Si;i., Durliam, N. H. (New Hampshire.)

*Raw.son, W. W., Seedsman and market-gardener, Boston, Mass. (Cucumber.)

*Reasonee, E. N., Nurseryman and horticulturist, Oneco, Fla. (Many articles, and much help on extreme southern horticulture. Cwsalpinia. Cocos.)

*Rehdee, Alfred, Specialist in hardy trees and shrubs, Jamaica Plain, Mass. (Botany and culture of most of the hardy trees atid shrubs.)

*Robeets, Prof. I. P., Dir. College of Agric, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. (Drainage. Fer- tility. Potato.) Rolfs, Prof. P. H., Horticulturist, S. C. E.\p. Sta., Clemson College, S. C. (Florida. Egg- plant.)

*R0SE, J. N., Asst. Curator, U. S. Nat. Herb., Smithsonian Inst., Washington, D. C. (Agave.) Rose, N. J., Landscape gardener to New York City Parks, New York, N. Y.

*RowLEE, Prof. W. W., Asst. Prof, of Botany, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. (Nymphwa. Nar- cissus. Salix. Definitions.)

*Sargent, Prof. C. S., Dir. Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, Mass. (Abies.)

*Scott,Wm., Florist, Buffalo, N.Y. (Acacia. Cy- iisus. Convallaria. Cyclamen. Smilax, etc.)

*ScoTT, Wm., Gardener, Tarry to wn, N. Y. (Berto- lonia and other dwarf tender foliage plants.)

*Semple, .James, Specialist in China Asters, Belle- vue. Pa. (Aster.)

*Shinn, Charles H., Inspector of Experiment Sta- tions, Univ. of Calif., Berkeley, Calif. (Cali- fornia. Fig, etc.)

*Shore, Robert, Gardener, Botanical Dept., Cor- nell Univ. , Ithaca, N. Y. ( Various articles, as Acalypha, Bedding, Marguerites, Dichorisandra, Fittonia.)

*SiEBRECHT, Henry A., Florist and nurseryman. New York and Rose Hill Nurseries, New Ro- chelle, N. Y. (Draccena and various articles. Much help on rare greenhouse plants, particularly orchids.) SiMONDS, O.C, Supt. Graeeland Cemetery, Buena Ave., Chicago, 111. (Cemeteries, in article on L-jndscape Gardeninp . )

COLLABORATORS

SLrNGERLAND, Prof. M. V., Asst. Prof. Economic Enfomology, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. ( Insects. Insecticides. )

*Smith, a. W., Cosmos cultivator, Americus, Gii. {Cosmos. Moonjfowcr.)

*Smith, Elmer D., Clirysantheraum specialist, Adrian, Mich. (Chrysanthemum.)

*Smith, JaredG., Div. of Botany, Dept. of Agric, Washington, D. C. (Nearly all jialms and rii- rious genera, as Centaurea, Cemstium , Coii/leiloii . ) Spencer, John W., Pruit-growiM-,W,.stilHl.l, Phnu- tauqna Co., N. Y. {G-rapen. Ililp on impor- tant fruits.) Starnes, Prof. Hugh N., Horticulturist, Ga. Exp. Sta., Athens, Ga. (Georgia.)

*Stinson, Prof. John T., Dir. Mo. Fruit Exp. Sta., Mountain Grove, Mo. (Arkansas.) Taft, Prof. L. R., Horticulturist, Mich. Agric. Coll., Agricultural College, Mich. (Heating. Hotbeds. )

*Taplin, W. H., Specialist in palms and ferns, Holmesburg, Philadelphia, Pa. (Culture of many palms, ferns and foliage plants. )

■*Taylor, Wm. a., Asst. Pomologist, Div. of Po- mology, Dept. of Agric, Washington, D. C. (Nuts.)

♦Thompson, C. H., Assistant Botanist, Mo. Botani- cal Garden, St. Louis, Mo. (Many genera of Cacti.)

*TouMEY, Prof. J. W., Biologist, Ariz. Exp. Sta., Tucson, Ariz. (Arizmia. Date.) Tracy, S. M., Biloxi, Miss. (Mississippi.)

*Tracy, Prof. W. W., Seedsman, Detroit, Midi. ( Cabbage.)

*Trelease, Dr. Wm., Dir. Mo. Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Mo. (Aloe. Apicra. Oasleria. Ha- worthia.)

*Tricker, Wm., Specialist in aquatics, Dreer's Nursery, Eiverton, N. J. {Aquarium. Aqua- tics. Nymphtea. Nelumbium. Victoria, etc.) Troop, Prof. James, Horticulturist, Ind. Exp. Sta.,

Lafayette, Ind. (Indiana.) Turner, Wm., Gardener, Tarrytown, N. Y. (Forcing Fruits.)

*Tuttle, H. B., Cranberry grower. Valley Junc- tion, Wis. (Cranberry.)

*UNDER-svoon, Prof. L. M., Columbia University, New York, N. Y. (Botany of aU ferns.)

*Van Deman, H. E., Pomologist, Parksley, Va. (Date.) Vaughan, J. C, Seedsman and florist, Chicago

and New York. (Cliristmas Greens.) Voorhees, Prof. Edward B., Dir. N. J. Exp. Sta.,

New Brunswick, N. J. (Fertili::ers.) Waldron, Prof. C. B., Horticulturist, N. Dak. Exp. Sta , Fargo, N. Dak. (North Dakota.)

*Walker, Ernest, Horticulturist, Arkansas Exp. Sta., Fayetteville, Ark. (Annuals. Basket Plants. Watering.) Watrous, C. L., Nurseryman, Des Moines, la. (Iowa.)

*Watson, B. M., Instructor in Horticulture, Bus- sey Inst., Jamaica Plain, Mass. (Colchicum. Cuttage. Forcing. Bouse Plants.) Watts, R. L., Horticulturist, Tenn. Exp. Sta., Knoxville, Tenn. (Tennessee.)

*Waugh, Prof. F. A., Horticulturist, Vt. Exp. Sta., Burlington, Vt. ^Bcet. Carrot. Cucumber. Lilium. Pentstemon. Salad Plants. Vermont.)

*Webber, H. J., In charge of Plant Breeding

Laboratory, Div. of Veg. Phys. and Path.,

Dept. of Agric, Washington, D. C.

(Citrus.)

Whitney, Prof. Milton, Chief Div. of Soils,

Dept. of Agric, Washington, D. C. (.So(7.) Whitten, Prof. J. C, Horticulturist, Mo. Exp. Sta., Columbia, Mo. (Missouri.)

*WlCKSON, Edward J., Prof, of Agricultural Prac- tice, Univ. of Calif., and Horticulturist, Calif. Exp. Sta., Berkeley, Calif. (Almond, Apri- cot, Cherry, Grape, etc., in California.)

*Wiegand, K. M., Instructor in Botany, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. (Coreopsis. CordijUne. Cyperus. Dracaina.)

*Wyman, a. P., Asst. to Olmsted Bros., Land- scape Architects, Brookline, Mass. (Dirca, Epigcsa, Halesia and other hardy trees and .<<hrul)S. )

II. PARTIAL LIST OF THOSE WHO HAVE ASSISTED BY BEADING PROOF, AND IN OTHER WAYS

Andrews, D. M., Nurseryman, Boulder, Colo. (Na five western plan ts, especially n ew hardy Cacti . )

Ball, CD., Wholesale florist, Holmesburg, Phila- delphia, Pa. (Palms. Ferns. Foliage Plants.)

Barker, Michael, Editor "American Florist," 32+ Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. (Many sug- gestions. )

Bassett, Wm. F., & Son, Hammonton, N. J. (Hibiscus and other plants.)

Berqer & Co., H. H., New York, N. Y. (Japa- nese and Californian plants.)

Blanc, A. , Seedsman and plantsman, Philadelphia, Pa. ( Cacti. Novelties, i

Breck & Sons, Joseph, Seedsmen, Boston, Mass. (Portrait of Joseph Breck. )

COLLABORATORS

BuDLOKG Bros., Piekle makers, Providence, R. I. (CiicKmier.)

Clare, Miss Josephine A., Asst. Librarian, Dept. of Agrie., Wasliington, D. C. [Information as to species since Index Keicensis )

COATES, Leonard, Napa City, Calif. {Fruit Cul- ture in California.)

CoviLLE, Frederick v., Botanist, Dept. of Agric, Washington, D. C. {Suggestions as to con- tributors.)

CowEN, J. H., Horticulturist, Ithaca, N. Y. {Colorado.)

Day, Miss Mary A., Librarian, Gray Herbarium of Harvard Univ., Cambridge, Mass. [Rare books. ^

Deane, Walter, Cambridge, Mass. ( Various botanical ivoblems.)

Devron, Dr. G., Amateur in Bamboos, New Orleans, La. {Bamboos.}

Dock, Miss M. L., Harrisburg, Pa. (Bartram.)

Dreer, H. a.. Seedsmen and plantsmen, Phila- delphia, Pa. ( Many and varied services, espe- cially in aquatics, ferns, foliage plants and rare annuals.)

Egan, W. C. Amateur, Highland Park, Ills. {Plants of exceptional hardiness.)

Ellwanger & Barry, Nurserymen, Rochester, N. Y. {Hardy plants.)

Ganong, W. F., Prof, of Botany, Smith College, Northampton, Mass. {Cacti.)

Halliday Bros., Baltimore, Md., Florists. {Azalea. Camellia.)

LuPTON, J. M., Market-gardener, Gregory, L. I. ( Cabbage. )

Makepeace, A. D., Cranberry grower. West Barn- stable, Mass. {Cranlerrij.)

Manda, W. A., Nurseryman, South Orange, N. J. {Orchid pictures.)

Manning, Jacob W., Nurseryman, Reading, Mass. {Dried specimens of herbaceous perennial plants.)

Manning, Robert, Sec. Mass. Hort. Soc, Boston, Mass. ( Biographical sketches. )

Mathews, Wm., Florist, Utica, N. Y. ( Orchids. )

May, John N., Florist, Summit, N. J. {Florist.^' flowers. )

Meehan & Sons, Thos., Nurserymen, German- town, Pa. {Hardy plants.)

Pierson, F. R., Nurseryman, Tarrytown-on- Hudson, N. Y. {Bulbs.)

Powell, Geo. T., Pomologi-st, Ghent, N. Y. {Important fruits.)

Rider, Prof. A. J., Trenton,

N.

{Cr

her

Robinson, Dr. B. L., Curator Gray Herbarium of

Harvard Univ., Cambridge, Mass. {Various

articles.) ScooN, C. K., Fruit-grower, Geneva, N. Y.

(Cherry.) Sears, Prof. F. C, Wolfville, Nova Scotia.

{Canada.) Shady Hill Nursery Co., Boston, Mass. {Her- baceous 2ierennials.) Slaymaker, a. W., Fruit-grower, Camden, Del.

{Delaware.) Storrs & Harrison, Nurserymen, Painesville,

Ohio. {Various plants.) Suzuki & Iida, Yokohama Nursery Co., 11 Broad

way. New Y'ork, N. Y. [Japanese plants.) Thorburn & Co., J. M., Seedsmen, New York,

N. Y. {Numerous important and rare plants,

especially annuals.) Todd, Frederick G., Landscape architect, Mon- treal, P. Q. {Hardy trees and shrubs.) Vick's Sons, James, Seedsmen, Rochester, N. Y.

{Various plants.) Ward, C. W., Florist, Cottage Gardens, Queens,

L.I. (Carnation.) Webb, Prof. Wesley, Dover, Del. (Delaware.) White, J. J., Cranberry grower. New Lisbon,

N. J. (Cranberry.) WiLLARD, S. D., Nurseryman, Geneva, N. Y.

(Important fruits, as Cherry.) Wood, E. M., Florist, Natick, Mass. Wright, Charles, Horticulturist, Seaford, Del.

(Delaioare.)

EXPLANATIONS

Horticulture is the art of raising fruits, vege- tables, flowers and ornamental plants. The lines of demarcation between it and the art of agricul- ture on the one hand 'and the science of botany on the other, are purely arbitrary. In this work, the word horticulture has been interpreted liber- ally. Herein are included discussions of land- scape gardening, and brief notes of such impor- tant agricultural subjects as Coffee, Cotton, Flax, and such economic subjects as Cinchona, India Rubber. Forage and medicinal plants are men- tioned only incidentally.

fTHAT IS MEANT BY "THE TRADE"

It is the design of the Cyclopedia to describe fully all those species of plants which are in the American trade, that is, the species that are bought and sold. In order to determine what species are in the trade, catalogues of nurserymen, seedsmen and florists have been indexed, and other commercial literature has been consulted; in addition to this, specialists have been consulted freely for lists of plants. The work includes the plants offered by foreign dealers who have Ameri- can agents, and who circulate in America cata- logues printed in the English language : therefore, the work will be found to include many species offered by the bulb growers of Holland, and by most other large European concerns. The pur- pose is to make a live record of the real status of our horticulture, rather than a mere compila- tion from the other literature. However, im- portant plants which are not in the American trade are mentioned, for they may be expected to appear at anytime: but these plants are in sup- plementary lists in smaller type. Thus, the size of type indicates that Abobra riridiflora is in the trade, whereas Abroma augusta is not. It will no doubt be a surprise to the reader, as it has been to the Editor, to discover the great wealth of American horticulture in species of plants.

NOMENCLATUEE

The Editor has desired to be conservative on the vexed question of nomenclature. This effort is particularly important in the discussion of culti- vated plants, because names become established

(xiy)

in the trade and are worth money. A plant sells under a familiar name, but it may be a commer- cial failure under a new or strange one. Since plants belong as much to the horticulturist as to the botanist, it is only fair that the horticulturist be consulted before wholesale changes are made in nomenclature.

It is well to bear in mind that changes in the names of plants proceed from two general causes, (1) from new conceptions respecting the limits of genera, species, varieties, and ( 2 ) from new ideas in the merely arbitrary fashions or systems of nomen- clature. Changes of the former kind are usually welcomed by horticulturists, because they eluci- date our understanding of the plants, but changes of the latter kind are usually deplored. At the present moment, there is the greatest unrest in respect to systems of nomenclature. This unrest is, to be sure, in the interest of the fixity or per- manency of names, but there is no guarantee —if, indeed, there is any hope— that the system which may be adopted to-day will be accepted by the next generation. In fact, the very difficulty of ar- riving at a common understanding on the question is itself the strongest evidence that the systems do not rest on fundamental or essential principles, but upon expediency and personal preference. There is no evidence that names which are mak- ing to-day will iit-rjiist any longer than have those which they ;n.- Mipiihiuting.

So-calk-d rtforins in nomenclature are largely national or racial movements, often differing widely between different peoples : consequently it is impossible to bring together under one system of nomenclature the cultivated plants of the world without making wholesale changes in names. Therefore, the Editor has accepted the most ten- able names which the plants bring, without in- quiring into the system under which they are given. In general, hosvever, he believes that the technical name of a plant is comprised of two words, and that the first combination of these two parts should be accepted as the name. Such double names as Catalpa Oitalpa and Glaucium Glauciutn are the results of carrying arbitrary rules to the utmost limit, but their ugliness and arbitrariness condemn them. It is t-o be expecttd that in the names of plants, as in everything else, the race will not long tolerate inflexibility.

EXPLANATIONS

In generic names, the system Bentham and Hooker (Genera Plantaruml has been followed. This system makes fewer changes in accepted horticultural names than any other, and this is considered to be a distinct merit. The chief rea- son for adopting the British ideas of genera, how- ever, is that Index Kewensis affords a complete finding-list of species under those genera. It would be impossible, in a work like the present, to follow the more recent system of Engler and Prantl (Die Natiirliehen Pflanzenfamilien), be- cause there is no index or finding-list for the species under those genera, and to make the proper combinations of generic and specific names for horticultural plants would necessitate a compi- lation practically equivalent to Index Kewensis. However, the various contributors have been at liberty to adopt their own ideas of generic limita- tions, so that the work will be found to occupy a somewhat middle ground between tlie British and German ideas of genera.

CHIEF LITERARY AIDS.

In the compilation of this work, the Editor has had access to most of the important world-floras, and to the leading geographical floras. In the systematic botany, the greatest help has been derived from the following great general works : Bentham and Hooker, Genera Plantarum (1862- 1883); Hooker & Jackson, Index Kewensis (1893- 1895); DeCandollc's Prodromus (1824-1873)- DeCandolle's Monographias Phanerogamarum (1878-1896, and continuing); Engler and Prantl, Die Naturliehen Pflanzenfamilien (begun 1889); Botanical Magazine (1786 to the present, and con- tinuing); Botanical Register (1815-1847); Revue Hortleole, Paris (1829 to the present, and continu- ing) ; Gardeners' Chronicle, London (1841, and con- tinuing); Garden, London (1871, and continuing); Loddiges's Botanical Cabinet, London (1817-1833) ; Flore des Serres, Ghent (1845-1880) ; L'lllustration Horticole, Ghent (1854-1896) ; Gartenflora, Berlin (1852, and continuing); Garden and Forest, New York (1888-1897); Nicholson's Illustrated Diction- ary of Gardening, London (1884-1887); Mottet's translation of Nicholson, Paris (1892-1899) ; Siebert and Voss, Vilmorin's Blumengartneri (189G).

HOW TO USE THE KEYS

In order to facilitate the study of the plants, the species have been arranged systematically, under the genus, rather than alphabetically. However, in all genera which contain 15 or more species, an alphabetical index has been supplied for purposes of rapid reference. The grouping of the species is founded preferably on horticultural rather

than on botanical characters, so that the ar- rangement does not always express botanical re- lationships. The grouping and the keys are arranged primarily to aid the gardener in making determinations of species. Every effort is made sharply to contrast the species rather than to de- scribe them. A word of explanation will facilitate the use of the keys. The species are arranged in coordinate groups of various ranks, and groups of equal rank are marked by the same letter. Thus, group A is coordinate with aa and with AAA, and B with BB and bbb. Moreover, whenever possible, the coordinate keys begin with the same catch- word : thus, if A begins "flowers," so do aa and AAA ; and this catchword is not used for keys of other rank. As an example, refer to Acer, page 12. Look first at a, beginning "foliage;" then at AA (p. 15), also beginning "foliage." Under A are the coordinate divisions B and BB, each with "bloom" for the catchword. Under B there are no subdivisions, but under BB there are divisions o, CO and ccc, each with "fls." for a catchword. Under c there are no subdivisions, but cc has four coordinate divisions, D, dd, ddd, dddd, each with "Ivs." for a catchword, and so on. In other words, if the plant in hand does not fall under A, the inquirer goes at once to aa. If it falls uuder A, then he determines whether it belongs to B or to BB, and so on.

A diagrammatic display of a scheme would stand as follows: A. Leaves, etc.

B. Flowers, etc.

c. Fruits, etc. c. Fruits, etc. BB. Flowers, etc. AA. Leaves, etc.

B. Roots, etc.

c. Flowers, etc.

D. Margins of leaves, etc. DD. Margins of leaves, etc. c. Flowers, etc. BB. Roots, etc. BBB. Roots, etc. AAA. Leaves, etc.

PROyUXCIATION

Accent marks are used to aid the reader in pro- nouncing the name. The accent designates (1) stress, or the emphatic syllable, and (2) the length of the emphatic vowel. Following the American custom, as established by Gray and others, a grave accent ( \ ) is employed to designate a long vowel, and an acute accent (' ) a short vowel. Thus, officinale is pronounced oflici-im//-li : iincrnfurpus is pronounced mieroearp'-us. Ordiii;iiily in diph- thongs the mark is placed over tlie st-roTid It-tter. Thus, in aitrea the an is meant to have its custo- mary long sound, as if written aice. Double vow- els take their customary English sounds, as ee and

EXPLANATIONS

00. Thus, the oo in Hobkeri is to be pionouneed as in hook. la most cases, the letters oi (from the Greek, meaning like to) are to be pronounced sep- arately : if the i is the penultimate syllable (next to the last), it is long, as in yuccol-dcs ; if the i is the antepenultimate syllable (third from the end) it is short, as in rhoniboi-dea. In dioicus and monoicus, however, the oi is a true diphthong, as in moist. It should be remembered that the final « terminates a separate syllable, as commu-ne, vuJga-re, gran' -de. This final c takes the short sound of ?, as in whip.

These pronunciations follow, in general, the common English method of pronouncing Latin names. However, many of the Latinized forms of substantive and personal names are so unlike Latin in general construction that the pronuncia- tion of them cannot follow the rule. As a matter of fact, biological nomenclature is a language of itself thrown into a Latin form, and it should not be a source of regret if it does not closely follow classical rules in its pronunciation. It has seemed best to make an exception to the literary rules in the ease of personal commemorative names in the genitive : we retain, so far as possible, the pro- nunciation of the original name. Thus, a plant named for Carey is called Ca-reiji, not Careij-i; for Sprenger, Spreng-eri, not Sprenger-i. The original spelling (as written by the author of the name) of the masculine genitive ending is usually retained, whether i or ii, but the syllable is usually pronounced as if the i were single. Whether one

J or two is used in the making of a masculine genitive, is largely a matter of euphony and per- sonal preference.

It may be well to add what are understood to be the long and short sounds of the i

6 as in met. i as in pine, i as in pill.

6 as in cone. 6 as in con. ii as in jute. A as in jut.

rowel instead of i.

SPELLING

The original spelling of generic and specific names is preferred. In some instances this origi- nal orthography does not conform to the etymology of the name, particularly if the name is made from that of a person. Such a case is Diervilla, named for Dierville. Ideally, the name should be spelled DierviUea, but Tournefort and Linnseus did not spell it so, and a name is a name, not primarily a monument to a man.

In accordance with the best authorities, the di- graph <E is used in the words cferulea, casrulescens, caespitosa, esesia ; oe is used in coelestis and eoe- lestinum.

Digraphs (B and (e have been dropped from Latin- made names which have come into the vernacular. Thus, as a common or English name, Spirtea be- comes spirea, Peonia becomes peonia or peony, Bougainvillsea becomes bougainvillea.

ABBREVIATIONS

1. OF UEXEEAL EXriiESSIOyS cultivated, etc.

feet.

inches. . nortli. . south.

tropics, tropi . west.

//. OF BOTANICAL TERMS

tl flower.

fl.fi flowers.

fill flowered.

/;■ fruit.

h height.

If. leaf.

Ift leaflet.

Ics leaves

St stem.

sis stems.

syn synonym.

var variety.

///. OF BOOKS AXD PERIODICALS

7n aid the student in the verification of the work, and to introduce him to the literature of the various subjects, citations are made to the por- traits of plants in the leading periodicals to which the American is most likely to have access. TJiese references to pictures have been verified as far as possible, both in the MS. and in the proof. A uniform method of citation is much to be de- sired, but is extremely difficult, because periodi- cals rarely agree in methods. With great reluc- tance it was decided to omit the year in most cases, because of the pressure for space, but the student who lacks access to the original volumes may generally ascertain the year by consulting the bibliographical notes below.

An arbitrary and brief method of citation has been chosen. At the outset it seemed best to indi- cate whether the cited picture is colored or not. This accounts for the two ways of citing certain publications containing both kinds of pictures, as The Garden, Eevue Hortieole, and Gartenflora.

The figures given below explain the method of citation, and incidentally give some hints as to the number of volumes to date, and of the number of pages or plates in one of the latest volumes.

A few works of the greatest importance are mentioned elsewhere by way of acknowledgment (p. XV.). The standard works on the bibliography of botany are Pritzel's Thesaurus and Jackson's Guide to the Literature of Botany; also, Jackson's Catalogue of the Library of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

A. F. . . . The American Florist. Chicago. A trade paper fouucled Augu.st 15, 1885. The vol- umes end with July. Many pictures re- peated in "Ung." (14:1524=Tol.andpage).

A. G. . . . AmericanGardening. New York. Represents

14 extinct horticultural periodicals, includ- ing The American Garden (1888-1890). Founded 1879^ (20:89e = vol. and paee.)

B The Botanist. Edited by Maund. No years

on title pages. Founded 18S9. 8 vols., 50 colored plates in each vol. (8:400 = vol. and col. plate.) Cumulative index.

B. B. . . . Britton & Brown. An Illustrated Flora of

the Northern U. S., etc. New York. 1896-1898. (3:588= vol. and page.)

B. H. . . .La Belgique Hortieole. Ghent. 35 vols. (1851-1885.)

B. M. . . . Curtis' Botanical Magazine. London. Founded 1787. The oldest current peri- odical devoted to garden plants. The vol. for 1899